Bio3400 Chapter 3 Mendelian Genetics
  1. Gregor Mendel chose the garden pea as his model system because it grows easily to maturity in one season, and can be            artificially.

  2. Mendel examined seven visible characteristics (traits), each with two contrasting             , using true-breeding parental strains.

  3. These crosses are called             since they involve a single pair of contrasting traits. These crosses are also             since the sex of the parents did not affect the outcomes.
  4. The original parents are the     generation, and their offspring are the     generation. Offspring arising from          (self-fertilizing) the F1 generation are the     generation.

  5. To explain the results of his monohybrid crosses, Mendel proposed three postulates that form the basis for Mendelian or               genetics.
    1. Traits are inherited in       factors (genes) which exist in pairs.
    2. One form of each unit factor is           for the trait and the other is            .
    3. The paired unit factors            (separate) independently during gamete formation.
  6. The           is the genetic makeup of an individual. The            is the physical expression of the genotype.
  7. Alternative forms of a       are called          . If the two alleles for a trait in an individual are the same, the individual is             , otherwise the individual is               .

  8. A          square is a tool to analyze and predict the ratios of            and             of a monohybrid cross.

  9. A            with a homozygous            individual can be used to determine whether an organism displaying the           phenotype is homozygous or heterozygous for that trait.

  10. A           cross involves two pairs of contrasting traits. Mendel proposed a         postulate from his dihybrid crosses:

    1. Traits         independently during gamete formation.

  11. Mendel's laws are based on probability, and simple mathematical        and laws of                 and           can be used to find various combinations in crosses.

    • The probability of allele frequencies in the         is the          of the probabilities of allele frequencies in the          .

    • The frequency probabilities of multiple allele combinations is the      of the frequency probabilities of the individual alleles.
  12. A           shows a family tree with respect to a given trait, and is a valuable tool in human genetic studies.

  13. Mendel's principles of independent              and independent             can be explained by the modern              theory of heredity and events that occur during          .