Bio3400 Chapter 12 DNA Organization and Chromosomes
  1. Bacterial and        chromosomes usually consist of a single molecule, are much smaller than eukaryotic chromosomes, and largely devoid of associated           .

  2. Bacterial and viral chromosomes are often           and underwound, resulting in a compact,              conformation.

  3. Distinctive banding patterns seen in           chromosomes represent paired homologs; bands may exhibit        indicating gene activity.

  4.            chromosomes in eukaryotes possess extensive DNA        where transcription activity can be visualized.

  5. Eukaryotic DNA is complexed with          proteins and bound up in repeating units called              .

  6. The nucleosomes are condensed in several levels of DNA packing to form the compact             packed into the 10-µm nucleus.

  7. Several           techniques can be used to reveal          patterns in mitotic chromosomes that are useful in identifying chromosomes.

  8. Eukaryotic chromosomes often exhibit large amounts of             DNA.

    • Repetitive DNA includes            DNA and              DNA that mediate chromosomal migration.

    • The ends of linear eukaryote chromosomes contain            DNA sequences that play a role in the normal process of cell aging.