Bio3400 Chapter 22 Applications and Ethics of Biotechnology
  1. Genetic disorders can be diagnosed prenatally by                followed by restriction fragment length               (RFLP) diagnosis.

  2. Allele-specific                   (ASOs) can be used to identify alleles that differ by a single nucleotide, without using radioactive isotopes..

    • ASOs have been used to produce DNA              in which expression of thousands of genes can be examined on a single chip.

    •              can be used to detect some forms of cancer.

    • Genome           using microarrays that carry all the genes in the human         makes it possible to analyze an individual's DNA for many disease alleles.

  3. Genes can be mapped directly to metaphase chromosomes using fluorescent in situ                (FISH).

  4. Moderately repetitive DNA sequences in the human genome called                 (VNTRs) and                  (STRs) provide polymorphisms for use as genetic markers.

    • Variable-number         repeats (VNTRs) can be used as probes for DNA                 .

    • Short         repeats (STRs) are used for forensic work to generate DNA profiles from trace samples.