Part 4: Genomic Analysis
Translation and Proteins
( tRNA ).
Each tRNA is "charged" with a specific amino acid by 20 different aminoacyl
Translation of mRNA can be divided into three steps.
ribosomal subunits, GTP, initiator tRNA, and
requires both ribosomal subunits assembled with the mRNA to form the
is signaled by a
codon (UAG, UAA, UGA) in the A
A mRNA molecule can have several
simultaneously translating the message, forming
Review: interactive polypeptide
Studies of mutations that result in heritable human diseases such as
provided first insight into the role of
in genetic processes.
Studies of mutations in
led to the one-gene:one-
Studies of human
showed that one
different hemoglobin polypeptide
two of which are expressed at different times in development
The order of nucleotides in a gene is
with the order of amino acids in the corresponding
Amino acids are composed of a
group, and an R group bound to a central
structure of a polypeptide is the sequence of amino acids formed by linking them together by
Proteins may also exhibit
additional levels of structure:
Proteins play diverse roles in the body.
binds to and transports
, which is essential for cellular metabolism.
proteins in muscle tissue.
) recognize "foreign" particles in the immune system.
proteins move molecules across
in eukaryotic organisms.
in biological reactions.
Nov 18, 2008